The Serpent block cipher was one of the 5 finalists in the AES competition, and is widely thought to be the most secure of them due to its conservative design. It was also considered the slowest candidate, which is one major reason it did not win the AES contest. However, it turns out that on modern machines one can use SIMD operations to implement Serpent at speeds quite close to AES.
Serpent uses an interesting bitsliced design with eight 4 bit sboxes which are computed in parallel using boolean operations on registers. Rather than splitting up the 32 bit words into nibbles and passing them through table lookups, a special instruction sequence is used which performs the same operation using only instructions like AND, OR, XOR, and NOT. Typically these are done using 32 bit register operations, but it was recently suggested that SIMD operations such as those available in SSE2 or AltiVec could be used to encrypt 4 blocks in parallel.
Most cipher modes, such as CBC and OFB, are iterative; after splitting the plaintext into blocks, the input to the second block depends on the previously computed ciphertexts. This data dependency means it is impossible to use a block-parallel implementation in these modes. However some other modes, including CTR, EAX, and XTS, do not exhibit this data dependency, and allow for many blocks to be encrypted in parallel. So being able to compute many encryptions in parallel is only useful for these modes. Fortunately, CTR, EAX, and XTS are very useful, unpatented, and (in the case of CTR and XTS) widely standardized modes.
Recently I implemented Serpent using SSE2 intrinsics in the botan cryptography library. While not quite as fast as AES, it easily boosts Serpents performance by a factor of over 2.5 on an Intel Core2 processor.
Up until now, botan has used a rather conventional block cipher interface where only a single block of data (typically 64 or 128 bits) would be encrypted at a time; processing multiple blocks required calling the function multiple times, one for each block. However this completely hides any parallelism from the block cipher implementation. So in the upcoming development release (1.9.0), botan offers two new interfaces for block ciphers:
void encrypt_n(const byte in, byte out, u32bit blocks) const; void decrypt_n(const byte in, byte out, u32bit blocks) const;
which will process many blocks in a single call. In addition some mode implementations (at this time, ECB and CTR) will batch their inputs into larger groups. This will not only allow for parallel encryption using SIMD techniques, it also improves instruction and data cache utilization for all ciphers. Right now, the modes will batch 8 blocks of data together; it is unclear if this is sufficient for the best performance, but in any case is easy to modify by changing a macro value in build.h.
On a 2.4 GHz Intel Core2 with GNU C++ 4.3.3, I got these results:
The AES speedups nicely demonstrate that even without any explicit SIMD operations, the improved cache utilization can make a pretty big difference.
I also experimented with performing 8 Serpent block operations in parallel, by interleaving two 4-wide SIMD encryptions. This reduced the number of key variable loads, as well as offering the processor much more in the way of independent computations for hot hot superscalar action. On my Core2, this pushed Serpent's performance north of 160 MiB/s in CTR mode, which is pretty impressive considering that is right about the speed of OpenSSL's AES-128 implementation on the same platform. However this variant seems slower on anything but a Core2; tests on an Opteron showed it to be somewhat slower than 4-way SIMD, and it is highly likely that it would also be much slower on 32-bit x86 processors due to excessive register pressure.
AltiVec looks to be an even more promising platform for multiblock Serpent encryption, as it includes native rotation instructions, which in SSE2 must be emulated using two shifts and an OR. It is very likely the Cell processors SIMD units could also implement Serpent in a SIMD mode. Considering the Cell SPE contains 128 SIMD registers, it might even be feasible to implement a variant suggested by Wei Dai of encrypting 128 blocks in parallel without suffering an excessive number of register spills.
2009-10-20 addendum: On an Intel Atom N270, this SSE2 implementation of Serpent is over twice as fast as OpenSSL's assembly implementation of AES-128.